Wednesday, November 5, 2008

Earthbound Farm-11/5/08

November 5, 2008

Thanksgiving from the Organic Kitchen

We’re cooking for Thanksgiving. If you live near our Carmel Valley, CA, Farm Stand (or plan to be in the Monterey Bay area for the holiday), let us help you fill your celebration table with a delicious all-organic menu!

Now taking orders — call 831-625-6219 x11 or stop by the Farm Stand today! (Last day to place orders is Sunday, Nov. 23. All orders can be picked up at the Farm Stand on Tuesday, Nov. 25 and Wednesday, Nov. 26.)

Ready-to-Roast Organic Turkey
Herb-Buttered or our famous Brined (order yours early!)

Turkey Giblet Gravy with wine, turkey stock, and herbs

Classic Mashed Potatoes, silky russets with milk and butter

Apple, Pine Nut & Sage Stuffing (vegetarian), delightfully aromatic

Food to Live By Garlicky Green Beans (from our cookbook), a zesty Farm Stand favorite, delicious hot or cold

Sweet Potato and Winter Squash Casserole, a delicious combination of fall favorites

Roasted Root Vegetables, tender and intensely flavorful

Buttermilk Biscuits, light and flaky

Food to Live By Cranberry Sauce (from our cookbook), sweet and tangy (great with chicken or pork, too)

Winter Squash and Pumpkin Pie, rich with cinnamon, brown sugar, and a touch of ginger

Whipped Cream, makes any dessert special


2009 is Our 25th Year

Earthbound Farm began in 1984 on a 2.5-acre backyard garden; 2009 will be our 25th anniversary year. We’re starting our celebration a little early with this beautifully printed, oversized 2009 wall calendar. Each month features vibrant, full-color photography of some of our California fields, with room to write reminders and engagements for even the busiest family. Makes a great holiday gift! You’ll find our 2009 calendar (and other Farm Stand treats) in our online store for just $12.95, and shipping is free! Or pick yours up at our Farm Stand.

Time for Mushrooms!

Few foods so completely enrapture devotees the way mushrooms do. In this month’s Seasonal Food Spotlight, we feature the humble mushroom in a variety of delicious ways, with a little history, lots of imaginative recipes, plus interesting nutritional information and prep tips, too. Enjoy!


Save the Date

Mark your calendar for the return of one of the Farm Stand’s perennial favorite events. This year’s Wreath-Making Workshop happens on Saturday, Dec. 6, from 11am-1pm. We’ll teach you how to twist organic grapevines into a wreath, then decorate it with natural greenery for yourself or as a lovely gift. Bring your gardening gloves! ($15 per person, includes materials and instruction.)

Learn more about Farm Stand events on our Special Events page. (Our new 2009 Event Calendar will be posted in March.)

Visit Earthbound Farm online at to search our archive of delicious recipes, find information about organic food and farming, watch Everyday Organic and Farm Stand videos, get product coupons, and more!

Our Farm Stand is Open Year-Round
8am-6:30pm Mon-Sat, 9am-6pm Sun

7250 Carmel Valley Rd., Carmel, CA
(just 3.5 miles east of Hwy 1)
(831) 625-6219

This eNews and its contents are ©2008 Earthbound Farm.

In This Issue

Now Online
New 2009 Calendar
Time for Mushrooms!

What's Happening
Save the Date for Wreath-Making

Store Hours

M-Sat 8am-6:30pm
Sun 9am-6pm
(831) 625-6219

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Wednesday, October 29, 2008


Energy Biosciences Institutes

join the EERE-energy efficient and renewable energy

A weekly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The EERE Network News is also available on the Web at:

October 29, 2008
News and Events
White House and DOE Present Awards for Federal Energy Savings
Interior Department to Open 190 Million Acres to Geothermal Power
Dell and City of Chicago Join Ranks of Top Green Power Buyers
U.S. Solar Power Manufacturing Growing Dramatically
Ausra Opens its First Concentrating Solar Power Plant in California
California Releases Plans to Cut its Greenhouse Emissions
Energy Connections
U.N. Environment Programme Launches Green Economy Initiative
News and Events
White House and DOE Present Awards for Federal Energy Savings
The White House honored energy management teams from four federal entities on October 23 with Presidential Awards for Leadership in Federal Energy Management, which honored the teams for their support, leadership, and work in promoting and improving energy use in their facilities. The teams included 44 federal employees and contractors that were collectively responsible for reducing the federal government's annual energy use by 3 trillion Btu—roughly equal to the annual energy use of 32,000 average U.S. households—for an annual cost savings of about $72 million. Teams from the Office of Public and Indian Housing at the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, the U.S. Marine Corps' Air Station Miramar, the U.S. General Services Administration's Pacific Rim Region office, and the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration were chosen for the awards. See the DOE press release.

In addition, DOE honored 22 individuals, teams, and organizations with Federal Energy and Water Management Awards for saving $28 million at federal agencies in fiscal year 2007 through their efforts to save water and energy. The awards went to individuals, teams, and organizations at DOE's Princeton University Plasma Physics Laboratory in New Jersey; the Tennessee Valley Authority; the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Fort Meade Environmental Science Center in Maryland and Research Triangle Park Campus in North Carolina; the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs' VA Medical Center in Huntington, West Virginia; the U.S. Department of Interior's Woods Hole Science Center in Massachusetts, San Andres National Wildlife Refuge in New Mexico, and Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge in Ohio; the General Service Administration's Frederick Murphy Record Center in Massachusetts and Northeast and Caribbean Region office in New York; the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Kennedy Space Center in Florida; the U.S. Air Force's Eglin Air Force Base in Florida, Moody Air Force Base in Georgia, Nellis Air Force Base in Nevada, and Charleston Air Force Base in South Carolina; the U.S. Army's Fort Hood in Texas; the U.S. Marine Corps' Air Station Miramar and Camp Pendleton in California; and the U.S. Navy's Ventura County Naval Base and Navy Region Southwest office in California, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division, in Pennsylvania, and Naval Facilities Engineering Command in Washington, D.C. See the complete list of awardees on the Federal Energy Management Program Web site.

The Federal Energy and Water Management Award winners were selected from nominations submitted by 16 federal agencies for their efforts in the fields of water conservation, renewable energy, sustainable design and high performance buildings, vehicle fleet management, energy efficiency and energy program management, and exceptional service. DOE also presented 10 internal awards to DOE programs, teams, and individuals at the 2008 DOE Transformational Energy Action Management (TEAM) Award Ceremony. The TEAM Initiative, which began in August 2007, aims to reduce the energy intensity at DOE facilities nationwide by 30%. The 10 TEAM awardees have developed projects that, when fully implemented, will reduce DOE's energy intensity to 20% lower than its 2003 levels. See the DOE press release and the TEAM Initiative Web site.

Interior Department to Open 190 Million Acres to Geothermal Power

The Interior Department plans to offer more than 190 million acres of federal lands for geothermal leasing, potentially resulting in a tripling of U.S. geothermal power capacity by 2015. Enlarge this image.
Credit: J.L. Renner, INL

The U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) announced last week that it plans to make more than 190 million acres of federal land in 12 western states available for geothermal energy development. DOI's Final Geothermal Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) identifies 118 million acres of public lands managed by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and 79 million acres of National Forest System lands that could be opened to future geothermal leasing, potentially leading to 5,540 megawatts (MW) of new geothermal power capacity by 2015. The PEIS excludes wilderness areas, wilderness study areas, and national parks. It will amend 122 BLM land use plans to allow for geothermal development, while allowing the Forest Service the discretion of evaluating geothermal leasing and considering whether to amend its land use plans. The document also includes site-specific environmental analyses for 19 pending geothermal lease applications for seven sites in Alaska, California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington. The plan will take effect via a Record of Decision, which will not be issued until the governors of the 12 states—Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming—are able to review the document and resolve any conflicts with state plans, programs, or policies. See the DOI press release and the full Final Geothermal PEIS.

The Interior Department's estimates of potential geothermal power production may actually be low, according to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). In late September, the USGS released its first assessment of geothermal resources in more than 30 years. The study found that identified geothermal resources in the West could produce 9,057 MW of power, while another 30,033 MW of power could be generated from conventional geothermal resources that have not yet been discovered. The use of Enhanced Geothermal Systems, which involves creating or expanding a geothermal resource through the high-pressure injection of a fluid, opens another 517,800 MW to potential development. For comparison, the U.S. currently has an installed geothermal power capacity of about 2,500 MW. One example of a company willing to explore new resources is Ormat Technologies, Inc., which has secured 15 of the 16 tracts offered for lease on Mount Spurr, Alaska, an active volcanic region about 75 miles west of Anchorage. Ormat is also working with DOE on a project to produce geothermal power using hot water from a producing oil well. Ormat recently validated the feasibility of the technology at the Rocky Mountain Oil Test Center near Casper, Wyoming. See the USGS press release and report and the Ormat press releases on Mount Spurr and the power production at an oil field.

In recent weeks, geothermal power development in Utah has hit several milestones. Raser Technologies, Inc. announced last week that it has completed major construction of its Thermo geothermal plant, the first commercial geothermal power plant built in Utah in more than two decades. The 10-megawatt facility combined 50 modular, low-temperature PureCycle power units from UTC Power, allowing power plant construction in just a few months. Utah is also slated to host a new 100-megawatt geothermal power plant, to be located on lands owned by the Northwest Band of the Shoshone Nation. LotusWorks, an Irish company, will work with Meridian Clean Fuels and the tribal-owned Shoshone Renaissance, LLC to develop the plant. Drilling has begun for the first 32-megawatt phase of the project, which is scheduled for completion in mid-2010, followed in successive years by the second and third phases of the project. The Shoshone Renaissance plant will likely be the first geothermal power project located on tribal lands in the United States. Power from the first two phases will be sold to Riverside Public Utilities in Riverside, California. See the press releases from Raser, LotusWorks (PDF 36 KB), and Riverside Public Utilities. Download Adobe Reader.

Dell and City of Chicago Join Ranks of Top Green Power Buyers
Dell, Inc. and the City of Chicago, Illinois, have become major purchasers of electricity from renewable energy sources, earning them top spots on the national top-50 list of green power purchasers. On Monday, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a quarterly update of its rankings of green power purchasers under the EPA Green Power Partnership, and Dell jumped from 25th place to fourth place after increasing its green power purchases by nearly a factor of five. The purchases actually exceed Dell's electricity use by about 58%, helping to offset greenhouse gas emissions from other forms of energy use within the company. Meanwhile, the City of Chicago is now buying enough green power to meet 20% of its electricity needs, placing it 16th on the national top-50 list and third on the top-20 list of local governments that are buying green power. Chicago has not previously appeared on the EPA's lists. Along with the quarterly update, the EPA took the opportunity to revise several of its lists, expanding its national list from the top 25 to the top 50 and enlarging its lists for retail companies, local governments, and colleges and universities from the top 10 to the top 20. See the Dell press release and the lists on the EPA Green Power Partnership Web site.

DOE, the EPA, and the Center for Resource Solutions (CRS) also presented the 2008 Green Power Leadership Awards on Monday. The four DOE Green Power Supplier Awards went to AmerenUE, which launched its Pure Power green pricing program in Illinois and Missouri in October 2007; the City of Palo Alto (California) Utilities, which has 20.4% of its customers signed up for the PaloAltoGreen green pricing program, marking the highest customer participation rate in the country; 3Degrees, which has annual green power sales of 4 billion kilowatt-hours, serving 6 of the top 15 corporate purchasers as well as many utility green pricing programs; and Sterling Planet, which has annual sales of renewable energy credits totaling 4.5 billion kilowatt-hours. The EPA recognized 16 green power purchasers, including the U.S. Air Force, Intel Corporation, Kohl's Department Stores, the Philadelphia Phillies, the City of Houston, and many other notable organizations. Meanwhile, CRS provided its market development awards to Portland General Electric, Detroit Edison, the Energy Action Coalition, Green Mountain Energy Company, and to Dr. Jan Hamrin, who founded CRS and helped to launch the Green-e certification program for green power. See the EPA press release and the list of award winners.

U.S. Solar Power Manufacturing Growing Dramatically
New manufacturing facilities for solar cells and modules in Massachusetts, Michigan, Ohio, Oregon, and Texas promise to add enough capacity to produce thousands of megawatts of solar devices per year within the next few years. In late September, Sanyo Electric Company, Ltd. announced its decision to build a manufacturing plant for solar ingots and wafers (the building blocks for silicon solar cells) in Salem, Oregon. The plant will begin operating in October 2009 and will reach its full production capacity of 70 megawatts (MW) of solar wafers per year by April 2010. In early October, First Solar, Inc. broke ground on an expansion of its Perrysburg, Ohio, facility that will add enough capacity to produce another 57 MW per year of solar modules at the facility, bringing its total capacity to roughly 192 MW per year. The company expects to complete construction early next year and reach full production by mid-2010. And in mid-October, SolarWorld AG opened a manufacturing plant in Hillsboro, Oregon, that is expected to produce 500 MW of solar cells per year when it reaches full production in 2011. See the press releases from Sanyo, First Solar, and SolarWorld.

Production is also surging ahead for manufacturers of flexible thin-film solar modules. Energy Conversion Devices, Inc. (ECD)—a manufacturer of thin-film modules deposited on flexible stainless steel—has announced plans to build a facility in Battle Creek, Michigan, that will produce 120 MW of solar modules per year. ECD will start construction this fall, with production starting by the end of 2009. ECD has the option of doubling its production capacity in Battle Creek and has plans to reach 1,000 MW of annual production by 2012. Konarka Technologies, Inc. deposits its solar modules onto a flexible plastic substrate, and the company has just reopened a former Polaroid Corporation facility in New Bedford, Massachusetts, that has been converted into a production facility for Konarka's "Power Plastic" solar modules. Konarka expects the facility to reach its capacity to produce of 1,000 MW of solar modules per year by 2011. Both companies employ a roll-to-roll process, similar to a newspaper printing press, for the manufacture of their solar modules. The manufacturing process offers the possibility of achieving high production capacities at a lower cost than most solar cell manufacturing plants. See the press releases from ECD and Konarka.

Last but not least, HelioVolt Corporation cut the ribbon last week on a manufacturing facility in Austin, Texas, that will have an initial capacity to produce 20 MW of solar cells per year. Starting with solar "inks" developed at DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory that are deposited with ink jets, HelioVolt employs a proprietary "printing" process to produce solar cells consisting of thin films of copper indium gallium selenide, or CIGS. The technology won an R&D 100 Award this year, and at last week's award ceremony, it earned an Editor's Choice Award for Most Revolutionary Technology. HelioVolt's "FASST" reactive transfer printing process is 10-100 times faster than other CIGS production processes and can also be combined with vacuum evaporation or ultrasonic spray deposition techniques. At its new Austin manufacturing plant, HelioVolt plans to produce both solar modules and next-generation building-integrated solar products using its FASST process. See the HelioVolt press releases for the Editor's Choice Award and the manufacturing plant.

Ausra Opens its First Concentrating Solar Power Plant in California

The Ausra technology employs flat mirrors that direct sunlight onto an overhead tube, in which water is boiled into steam.
Credit: Ausra, Inc.

Ausra, Inc. launched its first commercial solar power plant last week. The 5-megawatt (MW) Kimberlina Solar Thermal Energy Plant in Bakersfield, California, is the first to use Ausra's innovative technology that replaces trough-shaped solar mirrors with a series of narrow, flat mirrors, which mimic the performance of a solar trough at a lower cost. The power plant is also the first of its kind to be built in California in more than 20 years, with the previous plant being the Solar Energy Generating System (SEGS) near Barstow, which employs solar troughs. But while the SEGS plant heats oil that is used to boil water in a separate boiler, the Ausra technology focuses the sun's heat onto pipes that carry water, which is boiled directly into steam. The steam can then be used for either power production or as process steam in a factory. See the Ausra press release.

The Kimberlina plant will also be seen as a crucial demonstration of the Ausra technology before the company develops its Carrizo Plains solar power plant, a 177-MW facility for which the company holds a power purchase agreement with Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E). Ausra intends to build the facility in central California and to start producing power in 2010. Ausra and PG&E have also committed to developing 1,000 MW of concentrating solar power (CSP) over the next five years, and Ausra's technology is also slated for a 300-megawatt CSP plant planned for Florida. But Ausra seems confident, as it opened a manufacturing facility in Las Vegas, Nevada, this summer to produce the reflectors, absorber tubes, and other key components used in its CSP plants. See the Ausra press release and the article from the October 3, 2007, edition of this newsletter on Ausra's other CSP commitments.

California Releases Plans to Cut its Greenhouse Emissions
Three California agencies have proposed plans to reduce the state's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. The emissions cuts are required by AB 32, the Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006, which requires the California Air Resources Board (CARB) to develop a plan to meet the cuts. CARB's proposed plan, released in mid-October, relies heavily on a cap-and-trade program, which covers 85% of the state's GHG emissions. That program will be developed in conjunction with the Western Climate Initiative, which includes seven states and four Canadian provinces. To spur emissions cuts, CARB proposes an increased use of renewable energy, expanded energy efficiency programs, the implementation of California's clean cars standards, and a low-carbon fuel standard. Other measures include the full deployment of the California Solar Initiative, as well as high-speed rail, water efficiency programs, regulations to reduce emissions at ports, and efforts to reduce GHG emissions that aren't related to energy. See the CARB press release.

Meanwhile, the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) and the California Energy Commission have adopted their recommendations on how to cut the state's GHG emissions. The recommendations call for the state to pursue all cost-effective energy efficiency measures, including more stringent building and appliance standards, as well as a requirement for utilities to draw on renewable power for 33% of their electricity sales. The recommendations also note the need to encourage combined heat and power systems. Regarding the cap-and-trade program, the recommendations call for all emissions allowances to be auctioned off by 2016, with the auction revenues used for renewable energy, energy efficiency, new energy technology, infrastructure improvements, and customer bill relief. See the CPUC press release.

Energy Connections
U.N. Environment Programme Launches Green Economy Initiative
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and leading economists are calling for a radical shift to a new "green" economy. The UNEP Green Economy Initiative, also known as the "Global Green New Deal," was launched last week with an emphasis on investing in clean technologies and "natural infrastructure," such as forests and soils. The initiative emphasizes five sectors that it claims are likely to generate the biggest transition in terms of economic returns, environmental sustainability, and job creation. Those five sectors include clean energy and clean technology, such as recycling; rural energy, including renewable energy and biomass; sustainable agriculture; ecosystem infrastructure; reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation; and sustainable cities, including planning, transportation, and green buildings. In other words, energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies are included in three of the five sectors that the UNEP believes the world's economy should be focused on. Within the next two years, the Green Economy Initiative plans to deliver a comprehensive assessment and tool kit for the world's nations to make the transition to a green economy. See the UNEP press release.

This newsletter is funded by DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and is also available on the EERE Web site. If you have questions or comments about this newsletter, please contact the editor.

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Sunday, October 26, 2008

Organic Fertilizers and More

Lahar has the following: assignments

Technical Description | Specimen Prerequisites | Applications | Publications
Scientific Publications by GSPM Users


1. L.J. Cabri, J.L. Campbell, J.H.G. LaFlamme, R.G. Leigh, J.A. Maxwell and J.D. Scott (Work done at the Heidelberg SPM).
Proton-microprobe analysis of trace elements in sulfides from some massive-sulfide deposits.
Canadian Mineralogist 23, 133-148 (1985).

2. A.D. Paktunc, L.J. Hulbert and D.C. Harris.
Partitioning of the platinum-group and other trace elements in sulfides from the Bushveld complex and Canadian occurrences of nickel-copper sulfides.
Canadian Mineralogist 28, 475-488 (1990)

3. L.J. Cabri, S.L. Chryssoulis, J.L. Campbell and W.J. Teesdale
Comparison of in-situ gold analyses in arsenian pyrite
Applied Geochemistry 6, 225-230 (1991)

4. G.K. Czamanske, V.E. Kunilov, M.L. Zientek, L.J. Cabri, A.P. Likhachev, L.C. Calk and R.I. Oscarson
A proton microprobe study of sulfide ores from the Norilsk-Talnakh District, Siberia
Canadian Mineralogist 30, 249-287 (1992)

5. K. Hattori, S. Arai, D.M. Francis, D. Francis and D. Barrie
Variations of siderophile and chalcophile trace elements among mantle-derived sulphides detected by in-situ micro-PIXE analysis
EOS, 7 April, 1992, p. 344

6. L.J. Cabri, L. Hulbert, J.H.G. LaFlamme, R. Lastra, S.H. Sie, C.G. Ryan and J.L. Campbell
Process mineralogy of samples from the Wellgreen Cu-Ni-Pt-Pd deposit, Yukon
Explor. Mining Geol. 2, 105-119 (1993)

7. N.M. Halden, F.C. Hawthorne, J.L. Campbell, W.J. Teesdale, J.A. Maxwell and D. Higuchi
Chemical characterization of oscillatory zoning and overgrowths in zircon using 3 MeV µ-PIXE
Canadian Mineralogist 31, 637-647 (1993)

8. A. Protz, W.J. Teesdale, J.A. Maxwell, J.L. Campbell and C. Duke
Earthworm transport of heavy metals from sewage sludge: a micro-PIXE application in soil science
Nucl. Inst. & Meth. in Phys. Res. B77, 509-516 (1993)

9. A.D. Tomlin, R. Protz, R.R. Martin, D.C. McCabe and R.J. Lagac
Relationships among organic matter content, heavy metal concentrations, earthworm activity, and soil microfabric on a sewage sludge disposal site
Geoderma 57, 89-103 (1993)

10. N.M. Halden, W.J. Teesdale and J.L. Campbell
Scanning proton microprobe mapping of rare elements in mineral cleavages, fractures and grain boundaries; evidence for rare element mobility
Canadian Mineralogist 33, 961-971 (1995)

11. V.M. Graham and J.D. Robertson
Micro-PIXE analysis of framboidal pyrite and associated mackerel types in oil shale
Fuel 74, 530-535 (1995)

12. A.D. Paktunc and L.J. Cabri
A proton- and electron-microprobe study of gallium, nickel and zinc distribution in chromian spinel
Lithos 35, 261-282 (1995)

13. A.D. Paktunc and L. Hulbert
Geology of the Sturgeon Lake 01 kimberlite, Saskatchewan: a proton microprobe study of the macrocryst phase
Exploration and Mining Geology 5, 263-279 (1996)

14. J.M. Heikoop, C.J. Tsujita, M. Risk, T. Tomascik and A.J. Mak
Modern iron ooids from a shallow marine volcanic setting: Mahengetang, Indonesia
Geology 24, 759-762 (1996)

15. R. Moss and S. D. Scott
Silver in sulfide chimneys and mounds from 13oN and 21oN, East Pacific Rise
Canadian Mineralogist 34, 697-716 (1996)

16. B.E. Corbett, W.D. Goodfellow and W.M. Luff
The distribution of indium and tin on the 1000 meter level in the Brunswick #12 massive sulfide deposit, Bathurst Mining Camp, N.B.
GACMAC Annual Meeting, 22 (1997) A30

17. R. Kretz, J.L. Campbell, E.L. Hoffman, R. Hartree and W.J. Teesdale
Approaches to equilibrium in the distribution of trace elements among the principal minerals in a high-grade metamorphic terrane
J. Metamorphic Geol 17 41-59 (1997)

18. T. Oberthür, L. Cabri, T.W. Weiser G. McMahon and P. Müller
Pt, Pd and other trace elements in sulfides of the main sulfide zone, great dyke, Zimbabwe: a reconnaissance study
Canadian Mineralogist 35 597-609 (1997)

19. K. Hattori
Occurrence and origin of sulfide and sulfate in the 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruption products
In: Fire and Mud: eruptions and Lahars of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines” edited by C.G. Newall and R.S. Punongbayan, Univ. Washington Press,Seattle (1997)

20. J. D. Keith, J. A. Whitney, K. Hattori, G. H. Ballantyne, E.H. Christiansen, D. L. Barr, T. M. Cannan and C. J. Hook
The role of magmatic sulfides and mafic alkaline magmas in the Bingham and Tintic mining districts, Utah
J. Petrology 38, 1679-1690(1997)

21. D. Canil
The Ni-in-garnet geothermometer: calibration at natural abundances
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 136, 240-246 (1999)

22. N. A. Bryxina, Yu. V. Dublyansky, N.M. Halden, J.L. Campbell, W.J. Teesdale
Statistical characteristics of oscillatory zoning in cave calcite - popcorn from Hungary Dokl. Akad. Nauk.372, 514-517 (1999)

23. L. J. Cabri, W. Petruk, J. H. G. Laflamme and J. Robitaille
Quantitative mineralogical balances for major and trace elements in samples from Agnico-Eagle Mines Ltd., Quebec, Canada
Analytical Technology in the Mineral Industries, edited by L. J. Cabri et al, The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society (1999)

24. N.A. Bryxina, V.S. Sheplev O.I. Ripinen, N.M. Halden, J.L. Campbell and W.J. Teesdale
Qualitative analyses of dynamic model of Wang-Merino and quantitative estimates of trace elements distributions in sample from Arc-Bogdo(Mongolia)
Geology and Geophysics 9, 1287-1297 (2000)

25. T. Pichler, J.M. Heikoop, M.J. Risk, J. Veizer and J.L. Campbell
Hydrothermal effects on isotope and trace element records in modern reef corals: an introductory study of porites lobata from Tutum Bay, AmbitleIsland, Papau New Guinea
Palaios 15, 225-234 (2000)

26. I. A. Simpson, S. Perdikaris, G. Cook, J.L. Campbell and W.J. Teesdale
Cultural sediment analyses and transitions in early fishing activity at Langenesvaerer, Vesteralen, Northern Norway
GeoArchaeology 15, 743-763 (2000)

27. G. C. Wilson, J. C. Rucklidge, J. L. Campbell, Z. Nejedly and W. J. Teesdale
Applications of PIXE to mineral characterization
Nucl. Instr. Meth. B189, 387-393 (2002)

28. K. H. Hattori, S. Arai and D. B. Clarke
Selenium, tellurium and antimony contents of primary mantle sulfides
Canadian Mineralogist 40, 637-650 (2002)

29. L.J. Cabri, J.M.D. Wilson, V.V. Distler, Z. Nejedly and S.F. Sluzhenikin
Mineralogical distribution of trace platinum-group elements from the disseminated sulphide ores of the Noril’sk layered intrusion
Applied Earth Science B111, 15-22 (2002)

30. L. J. Cabri, K. Kojonen, T. Oberthur, T. Weiser, B. Johanson, S.H. Sie, J.L. Campbell, W.J. Teesdale, J.H.G. Laflamme.
Understanding the distribution of platinum-group elements in some mineral deposits; comparison of trace element analyses obtained by electron microprobe and micro-PIXE
Microkimica Acta 147, 167-173 (2004)

31. F. Gervilla, L.J. Cabri, K. Kojonen, T. Oberthur, T. Weiser, B. Johanson, S.H. Sie, J.L. Campbell, W.J. Teesdale, J.H.G. Laflamme
Understanding the distribution of platinum-group elements in some mineral deposits; comparison of trace element analyses obtained by electron microprobe and micro-PIXE
Microkimica Acta 147, 167-173 (2004)

32. H.E. Jamieson, C. Robinson, C.N. Alpers, D.K. Nordstrom, A. Poustovetov, H.A. Lowers.
The composition of coexisting jarosite-group minerals and water from the Richmond Mine, Iron Mountain,California
Canadian Mineralogist 43, 1225-1242 (2005)

33. H.E. Jamieson, C. Robinson, C.N. Alpers, R.B. McCleskey, D.K. Nordstrom, R.C. Peterson.
Major and trace element composition of copiapite-group minerals and coexisting water from Richmond Mine, Iron Mountain, California
Chemical Geology 215, 387-405 (2005)

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1. G.C. Wilson
Mineralogy of sulphide ores from the H-W Kuroko deposit, British Columbia, part II. Multi-element analysis of the ore minerals
Turnstone Geological Services Ltd. Report 1993-06, for Westmin Resources Ltd and The Mineral Deposits Research Unit, University of British Columbia, 44 pp (1993)

2. T.J. Barrett, S.J. Juras, R. Sherlock, G.C. Wilson and R. Allen
Geological investigations of the H-W deposit, Buttle Lake Camp, Central Vancouver Island (092F/12E)
In `Geological Fieldwork 1993' (B. Grant and J.M. Newell, editors), B.C. Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources Paper 1994-1, 385 pp., 339-344 (1994)

3. G.C. Wilson
Mineralogy and textural features of grab samples from gold prospects in Argentina, Ecuador, Brazil and Chile
Turnstone Geological Services Ltd. Report 1995-05, for Minera Homestake Chile, S.A., Santiago, 53 pp (1995)

4. G.C. Wilson
Microanalysis of metal-rich gossan from Canatun, Philippines
Turnstone Geological Services Ltd. Report 1995-08, for Mineral Deposits Research Unit, University of British Columbia/TVI Copper Inc., Calgary, 14 pp (1995)

5. G.C. Wilson
Proton microprobe analysis of sulfides in high-grade gold ore, Golden Bear deposit, Northwestern British Columbia
Turnstone Geological Services Ltd. Report 1995-11, for Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, 16 pp (1995)

5. G.C. Wilson
Mineralogy and metal distributions in oxide copper ores of the Potrerillos Mine, Chile
Turnstone Geological Services Report 1995-26, for Minera Homestake Chile, S.A., Santiago, 33 pp (1995)

6. G.C. Wilson
Proton microprobe analysis of an oxide ore: search for gold and other elements of interest
Turnstone Geological Services Ltd. Report 1996-02, for Lakefield Research of Canada Ltd., Ontario, 8 pp (1996)

7. G.C. Wilson
Mineralogical notes on miscellaneous samples: sulfidic charnockite, native gold, and the Moorabie and Millbillillie meteorites
Turnstone Geological Services Ltd. Report 1996-101, 24 pp (1996)

8. G.C. Wilson
Proton microprobe analysis of Getafe: mineral chemistry of a proposed exotic meteorite
IsoTrace Laboratory, University of Toronto, 11 pp (1997)

9. G.C. Wilson
Mineralogy of the Feitais massive sulfide deposit, Aljustrel District, Iberian Pyrite Belt, Southern Portugal
Turnstone Geological Services Ltd. Report 1998-09, for International Vestor Resources Ltd., Vancouver, 80 pp (1998)


(A subset of our publications that is germane to geochemical analysis)
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1. J.L. Campbell, L.J. Cabri, P.S.Z. Rogers, K. Traxel and T.M. Benjamin
Calibration of micro-PIXE analysis of sulfide minerals
Nucl. Instr. Meth. B22, 437-441 (1987)

2. G. Remond, F. Cesbron, K. Traxel, J.L. Campbell and L.J. Cabri
Electron microprobe analysis and proton-induced x-ray spectrometry applied to trace element analysis in sulfides: problems and prospects
Scanning Microscopy, 11017-1037 (1987)

3. A. Perujo, T.J. Riddolls and J.L. Campbell
Design of a dedicated target chamber for PIXE microanalysis of mineral samples
Nucl. Instr. Meth. B30, 280-283 (1988)

4. J.L. Campbell, J.A. Maxwell, W.J. Teesdale and J.-X. Wang
Micro-PIXE as a complement to electron probe microanalysis in mineralogy
Nucl. Instr. Meth. B44, 347-356 (1990)

5. J.L. Campbell, W.J. Teesdale and N.M. Halden
Micro-PIXE analysis in mineralogy and geochemistry
Geoscience Canada, Dec. 1992, 175-179

6. G.K. Czamanske, T.W. Sisson, J.L. Campbell and W.J. Teesdale
Micro-PIXE Analysis of Silicate Reference Standards
American Mineralogist 78, 893-903 (1993)

7. W.J. Teesdale, J.L. Campbell and N.M. Halden
Two-dimensional mapping of element variation in minerals using the Guelph Proton Microprobe
Nucl. Instr. & Meth. in Phys. Res. B77, 405-509 (1993)

8. J.L. Campbell and W.J. Teesdale
Micro-PIXE analysis of major elements in mineral specimens
Nucl. Instr. & Meth. in Phys. Res. B74, 503-510 (1993)

9. J.L. Campbell, W.J. Teesdale and N.M. Halden
Theory, practice and application of PIXE micro-analysis and SPM element mapping
Canadian Mineralogist 33, 279-292 (1995)

10. N.M. Halden, J.L. Campbell and W.J. Teesdale
Micro-PIXE in geochemistry and mineralogy
Canadian Mineralogist 33, 93-302 (1995)

11. J.L. Campbell, W.J. Teesdale, B. Kjarsgaard and L.J. Cabri
Micro-PIXE analysis of silicate reference standards for trace Ni, Cu, Ga, Ge, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo and Pb with emphasis on the Ni-in-garnetgeothermometer
Canadian Mineralogist 34, 37-48 (1995)

12. J.L. Campbell, G.K. Czamanske, L. MacDonald and W.J. Teesdale
Quantitative analysis of major elements in silicate minerals and glasses by micro-PIXE
Nucl. Instr. & Meth. in Phys. Res. B130, 608-616 (1997)

13. M. Kurosawa, J.L. Campbell, W.J. Teesdale, H. Ohyi, Y. Deguchi and S. Murao
Quantitative trace element analyses of silicate reference materials and a stainless steel using the proton microprobe
Chem. Geol. 160, 241-250 (1999)

14. Z. Nejedly and J.L. Campbell
Standardization of a micro-PIXE system using NIST iron- and nickel-based standard reference materials
Nucl. Instrum. Meth. in Phys. Res. B160. 415-423 (2000)

15. J.A Maxwell and J.L. Campbell
Improvements in the top-hat filter approach for PIXE background removal.
Nucl. Instr. Meth. B189, 143-147 (2002).


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1. J.L. Campbell
Chapter 6 (Applications in Earth Sciences) of “Particle-induced X-ray emission spectrometry”, (Vol. 133 of the Chemical Analysis Series) eds. S.A.E. Johansson, J.L. Campbell, K.G. Malmqvist, John Wiley, 1995

2. J.L. Campbell and G.K. Czamanske
Micro-PIXE in earth science. In `Applications of Microanalytical Techniques to Understanding Mineralizing Processes', eds. M.A. McKibben, W.C.P. Shanks III, W.I. Ridley (Society of Economic Geologists Short Course; Reviews of Economic Geology 7, 169-185 (1998)

3. L.J. Cabri and J.L. Campbell
The proton microprobe in ore mineralogy (micro-PIXE) in "Modern Approaches to Ore and Environmental Mineralogy" eds. L.J. Cabri and D.J. Vaughan (Short Course Series 27, 1998: Commission on Ore Mineralogy: International Mineralogy Association

4. J.L. Campbell
Particle-induced X-ray emission: in Encyclopedia of Geochemistry, eds. C.P. Marshall and R.W. Fairbridge, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 488-489 (1999)


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1. Z. Nejedly, J.L. Campbell, W.J. Teesdale, J. Brooke, A.H. Wiebe, R.M. Hoff, T. Dann
Comparison of multi-elemental analyses of aerosols by PIXE, PESA, EDXRF and IC
Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B103, 473-476 (1995)

2. Z. Nejedly, J.L. Campbell, W.J. Teesdale, J.F. Dlouhy, T.F. Dann, R.M. Hoff, J.R. Brook, A.H. Wiebe
Inter-laboratory comparison of air particulate monitoring data
J. Air and Waste Management Assoc. 48, 386-397 (1998)

3. Z. Nejedly, W.J. Teesdale and J.L. Campbell
PIXE and PESA aspects of the Canadian visibility and fine particulate monitoring program
Nucl. Instr. and Meth., B130, 608-616 (1997)

4. R. Hoff, L. Guise-Bagley, M. Moran, K. McDonald, Z. Nejedly, J.L. Campbell, S. Pryor, Y. Golestani and W. Malm
Recent visibility measurements in Canada
J. Air and Waste Management Assoc. 48, 386-397 (1998)

5. Z. Nejedly, J.L. Campbell, S.N. Rogak and R.M. Hoff
Air quality work at Guelph: GAViM and a traffic tunnel study
Nucl. Instr. and. Meth. B150, 398-402 (1999)

6. L. Cheng, 6 6. H. S. Sandhu, R. P. Angle, K. M. McDonald and R. H. Myrick
Rural particulate matter in Alberta, Canada
Atmos. Environment 34, 3365-3372 (2000)

7. Z. Nejedly, J. L. Campbell, J. Brook, R. Vet and R. Eldred
Validation of GAViM trace element and black carbon data by inter-laboratory comparisons
Aerosol Science and Technology 7, 96-108 (2003)

8. H.K.T. Wong, C.M. Banic, S. Robert, Z. Nejedly, J.L. Campbell
In-stack and in-plume characterization of particulate metals emitted from a copper smelter
Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis 6, 131-137 (2006)

9. C. Banic, W.R. Leaitch, K. Strawbridge, R. Tanabe, H. Wong, C. Gariepy, A. Simonetti, Z. Nejedly, J.L. Campbell, J. Lu, J. Skeaff, D. Paktunc, J.I. McPherson, S. Daggupaty, H. Geonac'h, A. Chatt, M. Lamoureux. The physical and chemical evolution of aerosols in smelter and power plant plumes: an airborne study. Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis 6, 111-120 (2006).


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1. N.M Halden, J.A. Babaluk, J.L. Campbell and W.J. Teesdale
Scanning proton microprobe analysis of strontium in an arctic charr otolith: implications for anadromy
Env. Biol. Fishes 43, 333-339 (1995)

2. N.M. Halden, J.A. Babaluk, A.H. Kristofferson, J.L. Campbell, W.J. Teesdale, J.A. Maxwell and J.D. Reist
Micro-PIXE studies of Sr zoning in Arctic charr otoliths: migratory behaviour and anadromy
Proc. Seventh Int. Conf. on PIXE and its Analytical Applications. Nucl. Instrum. Meth. In Phys. Research B109/110 (1996) 592-597

3. J.A. Babaluk, N.M. Halden, J.D. Reist, A.H. Kristofferson, J.L. Campbell and W.J. Teesdale
Evidence for non-anadromous behaviour of Arctic charr from Lake Hazen, Ellesmere Island, NWT, Canada
Arctic 50 224-233 (1997)

4. S.E. Campana, S.R. Thorrold, C.M. Jones, D. Günther, M. Tubrett, H. Longerich, S. Jackson, N.M. Halden, J.M. Kalish, P. Piccoli, H. dePontual, H. Troadec, J. Panfili, D.H. Secor, K.P. Severin, S.H. Sie, R. Thresher, W.J. Teesdale and J.L. Campbell
Comparison of accuracy, precision, and sensitivity in elemental assays of fish otoliths using the electron microprobe, proton-induced X-ray emission, and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 54, 2068-2079 (1997)

5. J.L. Campbell, J.A. Babaluk, N.M. Halden, A.H. Kristofferson, J.A.Maxwell J.D. Reist and W.J. Teesdale
Micro-PIXE studies of char populations in Northern Canada
Proc.8th Int. Conf. on PIXE and its applications, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B150, 260-266 (1999)

6. N.M. Halden, S.R. Mejia, J.A. Babaluk, J.D. Reist, A.H. Kristofferson, J.L. Campbell and W.J. Teesdale
Oscillatory Zn distribution in Arctic char otoliths; the result of fish behaviour or environmental feedback?
Proc. 2nd Int. Symposium on Fish Otolith Research and Application, Bergen, Norway, 1998, Fisheries Research 46, 289-298 (2000)

7. V. Sahanatien, J. Reist and J. Babaluk
How do we protect Arctic Char? Using otoliths to study migration patterns and assess stocks
Research Links 6 (2) 1-4

8. K. L. Howland, W. M. Tonn, J.A. Babaluk and R. Tallman
Identification of freshwater and anadromous inconnu in the MacKenzie River system by analysis of otolith strontium
Trans. Amer. Fisheries Soc. 130, 725-741 (2001)

9. J. L. Campbell, J. A. Babaluk, M. Cooper, G. W. Grime, N. M. Halden, Z. Nejedly, I. Rajta and J. D. Reist
Sr distribution in young-of-year Dolly Varden char otoliths: potential for stock discrimination
Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B189, 185-189 (2002)

10. J. A. Babaluk, J. L. Campbell, N. M. Halden, S. R. Mejia, Z. Nejedly, J. D. Reist and W. J. Teesdale
Micro-PIXE analysis of Sr in Arctic char otoliths from Quttinirpaaq National Park, Nunavut, Canada
Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B189, 191-195 (2002)

11. M. Saquet11. N. M. Halden, J. A. Babaluk, J.L. Campbell and Z. Nejedly
Micro-PIXE analysis of trace element variation in otoliths from fish collected near acid mine tailings: potential for monitoring contaminant dispersal
Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B189, 196-201 (2002)

12. J.A. Morris, R. A. Rulifson, J.A. Babaluk, J.L. Campbell
Characteristics of striped bass migration based on otolith microchemistry
X-Ray Spectrom. 34, 301-305 (2005)


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1. M.A. Lovell, J.D. Robertson, W.D. Ehmann, W.R. Markesbery, W.J. Teesdale and J.L. Campbell
Comparison of laser microprobe mass spectrometry and micro-PIXE for analysis of senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease: a preliminary study
J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 195,7-12 (1995)

2. M.A. Lovell, J.D. Robertson, W.R. Markesbery, W.J. Teesdale and J.L. Campbell
Copper, iron and zinc in Alzheimer's Disease senile plaques
J. Neurol. Sci. 158, 47-52 (1998)

Volcanoes of the World » Volcanoes of the Philippines and Southeast Asia » Data Sources
Region Information
Volcano List
Volcanology Highlights
Data Sources

Sulu Islands
Central Philippines
North of Luzon
Southeast Asia
Volcanoes of the Philippines and Southeast Asia

Data Sources

The following references are the sources used for data regarding volcanoes in this region. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Aguila L G, Newhall C G, Miller C D, Listanco E L, 1986. Reconnaissance geology of a large debris avalanche from Iriga volcano, Philippines. Philippine J Volc, 3: 54-72

Alcaraz A, Abad L F, Quema J C, 1952. Hibok-Hibok volcano, Philippine Islands, and activity since 1948.Volcano Lett, 516: 1-6 & 517: 1-4

Alcaraz A, Abad L F, Tupas M H, 1956. The Didicas submarine volcano. Proc 8th Pacific Sci Cong, 2: 139-156

Alvir A D, 1956. A cluster of little known Philippine volcanoes. Proc 8th Pacific Sci Cong, 2: 205-206

Andal E S, Yumul G P Jr, Listanco E L, Tamayo R A Jr, Dimalanta C B, Ishii T, 2005. Characterization of the Pleistocene volcanic chain of the Bicol arc, Philippines: implications for geohazard assessment. Terr Atmos Ocean Sci, 16: 865-883

Balmes C P, 2000. The geochemistry of the Mt. Balut Island geothermal prospect, Davao del Sur, Philippines.Proc World Geotherm Cong 2000, Kyushu-Tohoku, Japan, May 28-June 10, 2000, p 959-964

Barr S M, James D E, 1990. Trace element characteristics of Upper Cenozoic basaltic rocks of Thailand, Kampuchea and Vietnam. J Southeast Asian Earth Sci, 4: 233-242

Bau M, Knittel U, 1993. Significance of slab-derived partial melts and aqueous fluids for the genesis of tholeiitic and calc-alkaline island-arc basalts: evidence from Mt. Arayat, Philippines. Chem Geol, 105: 233-251

Bautista L P, 1988. The 1988 Bulusan volcano activity. Phivolcs Observer, 4: 1-3

Bondarenko V I, Nadezhnyi A M, 1985. Main structural features and morphology of the volcanic zone and individual submarine volcanoes in the vicinity of the Catwic-Phu Quy islands on the Vietnamese shelf as revealed by continuous seismic profiling data. Volc Seism, 1985(5): 34-43 (English translation 1989, 7: 701-716)

Castillo P R, Janney P E, Solidum R U, 1999. Petrology and geochemistry of Camiguin Island, southern Philippines: insights to the source of adakites and other lavas in a complex arc setting. Contr Mineral Petr, 134: 33-51

Castillo P R, Newhall C G, 2004. Geochemical constraints on possible subduction components in lavas of Mayon and Taal volcanoes, southern Luzon, Philippines. J Petr, 45: 1089-1108

Castillo P R, Solidum R U, Punongbayan R S, 2002. Origin of high field strength element enrichment in the Sulu Arc, southern Philippines, revisited. Geology, 30: 707-710

Catane S G, Taniguchi H, Goto A, Givero A P, Mandanas A A, 2005. Explosive volcanism in the Philippines.CNEAS Monograph Ser, Tohoku Univ, 18: 1-146

Chen S (ed), 1986. Atlas of Geo-Science, Analysis of Landsat Imagery in China. Beijing: Chinese Acad Sci Press, 228 p

COMVOL, 1981. Catalogue of Philippine volcanoes and solfataric areas. Philippine Comm Volc, 87 p

Defant M J, Jacques D, Maury R C, de Boer J, Joron J-L, 1989. Geochemistry and tectonic setting of the Luzon arc, Philippines. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 101: 663-672

Defant M J, Maury R C, Joron J, Feigenson M D, Leterrier J, Bellon H, Jacques D, Richard M, 1990. The geochemistry and tectonic setting of the northern section of the Luzon arc (the Philippines and Taiwan).Tectonophysics, 183: 187-205

Defant M J, Maury R C, Ripley E M, Feigenson M D, Jacques D, 1991. An example of island-arc petrogenesis: geochemistry and petrology of the southern Luzon arc, Philippines. J Petr, 32: 455-500

Delfin F G Jr, Newhall C G, Martinez M L, Salonga N D, Bayon F E B, Trimble D, Solidum R, 1997. Geological, 14C, and historical evidence for a 17th century eruption of Parker volcano, Mindanao, Philippines. J Geol Soc Philippines, 52: 25-42

Delfin F G Jr, Villarosa H G, Layugan D B, Clemente V C, Candelaria M R, Ruaya J R, 1996. Geothermal exploration of the pre-1991 Mount Pinatubo hydrothermal system. In: Newhall C G, Punongbayan R S (eds) Fire and Mud: Eruptions and Lahars of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines. Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Inst Volc Seism, and Seattle: Univ Wash Press, p 197-212

Du J, Liu C, Fu B, Ninomiya Y, Zhang Y, Wang C, Wang H, Sun Z, 2005. Variations of geothermometry and chemical-isotopic compositions of hot spring fluids in the Rehai geothermal field, southwestern China. J Volc Geotherm Res, 142: 243-261

Ebasco Services, 1977. Preliminary safety analysis report, Philippine Nuclear Power Plant #1. Philippine Atomic Energy Comm Open-File Rpt and response to questions

Geronimo-Catane S, 1994. Mode of emplacement of two debris-avalanche deposits at Banahao volcano, southern Luzon, Philippines. Bull Volc Soc Japan (Kazan), 39: 113-127

Green J, Short N M, 1971. Volcanic Landforms and Surface Features: a Photographic Atlas and Glossary. New York: Springer-Verlag, 519 p

Hoblitt R P, Wolfe E W, Scott W E, Couchman M R, Pallister J S, Javier D, 1996. The preclimactic eruptions of Mount Pinatubo, June 1991. In: Newhall C G, Punongbayan R S (eds) Fire and Mud: Eruptions and Lahars of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines. Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Inst Volc Seism, and Seattle: Univ Wash Press, p 457-511

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior.

Katsui Y (ed), 1971. List of the World Active Volcanoes. Volc Soc Japan draft ms, (limited circulation), 160 p

Lagmay A M F, Rodolfo K S, Siringan F P, Uy H, Remotigue C, Zamora P, Lapus M, Rodolfo R, Ong J, 2007. Geology and hazard implications of the Maraunot notch in the Pinatubo caldera, Philippines. Bull Volc, 69: 797-809

Liu J, Taniguchi H, 2001. Active volcanoes in China. Tohoku Asian Studies, 6: 173-189

Macdonald G A, Alcaraz A, 1956. Nuees ardentes of the 1948-1953 eruption of Hibok-Hibok. Bull Volc, 18: 169-178

Markov Y D, 1994. Recent sedimentogenesis on the Ile des Cendres volcanoes and adjacent shelf, South China Sea. Volc Seism, 15: 565-578 (English translation)

Maturgo O, Zaide-Delfin M, Layugan D, Catane J P, 2000. Characteristics of the volcanic-hydorthermal system in Mt. Labo, Philippines: implications to development. Proc World Geotherm Cong 2000, Kyushu-Tohoku Japan, May 28-June 10, 2000, p 1431-1436

McDermott F , Delfin F G Jr, Defant M J, Turner S, Maury R, 2005. The petrogenesis of volcanics from Mt. Bulusan and Mt. Mayon in the Bicol arc, Philippines. Contr Mineral Petr, 150: 652-670

McDermott F, Defant M J, Hawkesworth C J, Maury R C, Joron J L, 1993. Isotope and trace element evidence for three component mixing in the genesis of the North Luzon arc lavas (Philippines). Contr Mineral Petr, 113: 9-23

Miklius A, Flower M F J, Huijsmans J P P, Mukasa S B, Castillo P, 1991. Geochemistry of lavas from Taal Volcano, southwest Luzon, Philippines. J Petr, 32: 593-627

Moore J G, Nakamura K, Alcaraz A, 1966. The 1965 eruption of Taal volcano. Science, 151: 955-960

Neumann van Padang M, 1953. Philippine Islands and Cochin China. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 2: 1-49

Newhall C G, 1979. Temporal variation in the lavas of Mayon volcano, Philippines. J Volc Geotherm Res, 5: 61-84

Newhall C G, Daag A S, Delfin F G Jr, Hoblitt R P, McGeehin J, Pallister J S, Regalado T M, Rubin M, Tubianosa B S, Tamayo R A Jr, Umbal J V, 1996. Eruptive history of Mount Pinatubo. In: Newhall C G, Punongbayan R S (eds) Fire and Mud: Eruptions and Lahars of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines. Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Inst Volc Seism, and Seattle: Univ Wash Press, p 165-195

Newhall C G, Dzurisin D, 1988. Historical unrest at large calderas of the world. U S Geol Surv Bull, 1855: 1108 p, 2 vol

Newhall C G, Punongbayan R S (eds), 1996. Eruptive history of Mount Pinatubo. Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Inst Volc Seism, and Seattle: Univ Wash Press, 1126 p

Nielson D L, Clemente W C, Moore J N, Powell T S, 1996. Fracture permiability in the Matalibong-25 corehole, Tiwi geothermal field, Philippines. Proc 21st Workshop Geotherm Reservoir Eng, Stanford Univ, Calif, Jan 22-24, 1996, p 209-216

Ozawa A, Tagami T, Listance E L, Arpa C B, Sudo M, 2004. Initiation and propogation of subduction along the Philippine trench: evidence for temporal and spatial distribution. J Asian Earth Sci, 23: 105-111

Pallister J S, Hoblitt R P, Meeker G P, Knight R J, Siems D F, 1996. Magma mixing at Mount Pinatubo: petrographic and chemical evidence from the 1991 deposits. In: Newhall C G, Punongbayan R S (eds) Fire and Mud: Eruptions and Lahars of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines. Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Inst Volc Seism, and Seattle: Univ Wash Press, p 687-731

Patte E, 1925. Etude de l'Ile des Cendres, volcan apparu au large de la Cote d'Annam. Bull Serv Geol Indochina, 13: 5-19

PHIVOLCS, 1991. Volcanoes of the Philippines. Manila: PHIVOLCS Press, 41 p

PHIVOLCS, 2004-. Volcanoes.

Pierson T C, Janda R J, Umbal J V, Daag A S, 1992. Immediate and long-term hazards from lahars and excess sedimentation in rivers draining Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines. U S Geol Surv, Water Resour Invest Rpt, 92-4039: 1-35

Pinatubo Volcano Observatory Team, 1991. Lessons from a major eruption: Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines. Eos, Trans Amer Geophys Union, 72: 545, 552-553, 555

Rae A J, Cooke D R, Phillips D, Zaide-Delfin M, 2004. The nature of magmatism at Palinpinon ggeothermal field, Negros Island, Philippines: implications for geothermal activity and regional tectonics. J Volc Geotherm Res: 129: 321-342

Ramos S, Zaide-Delfin M, Takashima I, Bayrante L, Panem C, Pioquinto W, 2000. Thermoluminescence dating in Mt. Labo and North Davao, Philippines: implications on geothermal wells. Proc World Geotherm Cong 2000, Kyushu-Tohoku Japan, May 28-June 10, 2000, p 1617-1622

Ramos-Villarta S C, Corpuz E G, Newhall C G, 1985. Eruptive history of Mayon volcano, Philippines. Philippine J Volc, 2: 1-35

Richard M, Maury R C, Bellon H, Stephan J F, Boirat J M, Calderon A, 1986. Geology of Mt. Iraya volcano and Batan Island, northern Philippines. Philippine J Volc, 3: 1-27

Ruaya J R, Panem C C, 1991. Mt. Natib, Philippines: a geochemical model of a caldera-hosted geothermal system. J Volc Geotherm Res, 45: 255-265

Sajona F G, Bellon H, Maury R C, Pubellier M, Cotten J, Rangin C, 1994. Magmatic response to abrupt changes in geodynamic settings: Pliocene-Quaternary calc-alkaline and Nb-enriched lavas from Mindanao, Philippines.Tectonophysics, 237: 47-72

Sajona F G, Bellon H, Maury R C, Pubellier M, Querbral R D, Cotten J, Bayon F E, Pagado E, Pematian P, 1997. Tertiary and Quaternary magmatism in Mindanao and Leyte (Philippines): geochronology, geochemistry and tectonic setting. J Asian Earth Sci, 15: 121-153

Sajona F G, Maury R C, Prouteau G, Cotten J, Schiano P, Bellon H, Fontaine L, 2000. Slab melt as metasomatic agent in island arc magma mantle sources, Negros and Bataan (Philippines). The Island Arc, 9: 472-486

Salise P C, Manzano J A, Sierra J, Barela H, 1991. Geo-environmental hazard investigation of Malindang Range volcanic complex and risk assessment of town centres, Misamis Occidental. Geol Soc Philippines 4th Ann Geol Conv Abs, p 16-17

Santos G G, Wainerdi R E, 1969. Notes on the 1965 Taal volcanic eruptions. Bull Volc, 33: 503-529

Sapper K, 1917. Katalog der Geschichtlichen Vulkanausbruche. Strasbourg: Karl J Trubner, 358 p

Saurin E, 1967. La neotectonique de l'Indochine. Rev Geog Phys Geol Dynam, 9: 143-152

Scott W E, Hoblitt R P, Torres R C, Self S, Martinez M L, Nillos T Jr, 1996. Pyroclastic flows of the June 15, 1991, climactic eruption of Mount Pinatubo. In: Newhall C G, Punongbayan R S (eds) Fire and Mud: Eruptions and Lahars of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines. Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Inst Volc Seism, and Seattle: Univ Wash Press, p 545-570

Smithsonian Institution-GVN, 1990-. [Monthly event reports]. Bull Global Volc Network, v 15-33

Solidum R U, Castillo P R, Hawkins J W, 2003. Geochemistry of lavas from Negros Arc, west central Philippines: insights into the contribution from the subducting slab. Geochem Geophys, Geosyst, 4: doi:10.1029/2003GC00513

Stephenson D, Marshall T R, 1984. The petrology and mineralogy of Mt. Popa volcano and the nature of the late-Cenozoic Burma volcanic area. J Geol Soc London, 141: 747-762

Stimac J A, Goff F, Counce D, Larocque A C L, Hilton D R, Morgenstern U, 2004. The crater lake and hydrothermal system of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines: evolution in the decade after eruption. Bull Volc, 66: 149-167

Tong W, Mu Z, Liu S, Zhang M, 1988. Late Cenozoic volcanoes and active geothermal systems in China. Proc Kagoshima Internatl Conf Volc, p 847-850

Torres R, Mouginis-Mark P, Self S, Garbeil H, Kallianpur K, Quiambao R, 2004. Monitoring the evolution of the Pasig-Potrero alluvial fan, Pinatubo volcano, using a decade of remote sensing data. J Volc Geotherm Res, 138: 371-392

Von Biedersee H, Pichler H, 1995. The Canlaon and its neighbouring volcanoes in the Negros Belt/Philippines.J Southeast Asian Earth Sci, 11: 111-123

Wang F, Peng Z, Chen W, Wang Z, Yang J, Zhang Z, Hu T, 2000. High-precision thermal ionization mass spectrometry dating of young volcanic rocks by using U-series method. Chinese Sci Bull, 45: 83-87

Wang F, Peng Z, Zhu R, He H, Yang L, 2006. Petrogenesis and magma residence time of lavas from Tengchong volcanic field (China): evidence from U series disequilibria and 40Ar/39Ar dating. Geochem Geophys Geosyst, 7, doi:10.1029/2005GC001023

Wei H, Sparks R S J, Liu R, Fan Q, Wang Y, Hong H, Zhang H, Chen H, Jiang C, Dong J, Zheng Y, Pan Y, 2003. Three active volcanoes in China and their hazards. J Asian Earth Sci, 21: 515-526

Whitford-Stark J L, 1987. A survey of Cenozoic volcanism on mainland Asia. Geol Soc Amer Spec Pap, 213: 1-74

Wiesner M G, Wetzel A, Catane S G, Listanco E L, Mirabueno H T, 2004. Grain size, areal thickness distribution and controls on sedimentation of the 1991 Mount Pinatubo tephra layer in the South China Sea. Bull Volc, 66: 226-242

Wolfe E W, Hoblitt R P, 1996. Overview of the eruption. In: Newhall C G, Punongbayan R S (eds) Fire and Mud: Eruptions and Lahars of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines. Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Inst Volc Seism, and Seattle: Univ Wash Press, p 3-20

Wolfe J A, Self S, 1983. Structural lineaments and Neogene volcanism in southwestern Luzon. In: Hayes D E (ed) The Tectonic and Geological Evolution of Southeast Asian Seas and Islands: Part 2, Amer Geophys Union Monograph 27

Yu J-H, O'Reilly S Y, Griffin W L, Xu X, Zhang M, Zhou X, 2003. The thermal state and composition of the lithospheric mantle beneath the Leizhou Peninsula, South China. J Volc Geotherm Res, 122: 165-189

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Begin forwarded message:

From: "kgma_news"
Date: October 24, 2008 4:22:01 AM EDT
Subject: [kgma] DA to propagate organic fertilizers

DA to propagate organic fertilizers
Roxas City -- The Department of Agriculture (DA) will vigorously
promote the use of organic fertilizers among palay farmers with an eye
on providing support for organic fertilizer manufacturing in 2009 to
farmers tilling 400,000 hectares or a tenth of all farmlands devoted
to palay growing nationwide.

This is among the changes that DA will introduce as it streamlines the
implementation of its palay production program under its banner
Ginintuang Masaganang Ani (GMA) that will, beginning next year, focus
funding on hard or "big-ticket" projects covering irrigation
maintenance, post-harvest facilities, farm-to-market roads (FMRs) and
rural extension work.

"While the DA will continue providing seed support to farmers, it will
do away with its fertilizer subsidy program involving the grant of
discount coupons for the purchase of petrochemical fertilizers so the
Department can focus instead on promoting the use of organic
fertilizers among palay growers," said Agriculture Secretary Arthur Yap.

Available discount coupons in the province can be used by
farmer-recipients until the end of this year.

Yap said the streamlining of intervention programs in support of
FIELDS, which stands for Fertilizer, Irrigation and other rural
infrastructure, Education and extension work, Loans, Dryers and other
post-harvest facilities, and Seeds, is part of the sweeping reforms
that he has put in place at the DA for a more effective implementation
and monitoring of its farm productivity programs plus a more prudent
disbursement of funds to program beneficiaries.

Among these reforms effected by Yap are the creation of national and
regional monitoring teams to conduct "periodic field validation and
rapid appraisal" of the DA's intervention measures and the adoption of
more stringent guidelines on the release of funds to non-government
organizations (NGOs) and people's organizations (POs).

The DA is also pursuing from hereon the closer coordination by the
regional field units (RFUs) with provincial, city and municipal
agriculture officers and farm technicians that are helping the DA
carry out its GMA programs in the field, he said.

Yap said this envisioned closer coordination between the DA and
municipal agriculture officers (MAOs) and other LGU-employed
agriculture officers and technician was an offshoot of its recent
accord with the League of Provinces of the Philippines (LPP) on the
detail by governors of some or all of their agricultural workers to
the RFUs for the duration of the DA's two-year rice sufficiency program.

Local government units in Capiz led by the provincial government has
been supporting DA's FIELDS program by initiating the distribution or
serving as conduits of certified palay seeds and other farm inputs for

The use of certified seeds is expected to further boost the palay
output of the province, which has been a traditional surplus producer
of the staple crop. (PIA/DA)

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Friday, October 24, 2008

[kgma] DA to propagate organic fertilizers

Roxas City -- The Department of Agriculture (DA) will vigorously
promote the use of organic fertilizers among palay farmers with an eye
on providing support for organic fertilizer manufacturing in 2009 to
farmers tilling 400,000 hectares or a tenth of all farmlands devoted
to palay growing nationwide.

This is among the changes that DA will introduce as it streamlines the
implementation of its palay production program under its banner
Ginintuang Masaganang Ani (GMA) that will, beginning next year, focus
funding on hard or "big-ticket" projects covering irrigation
maintenance, post-harvest facilities, farm-to-market roads (FMRs) and
rural extension work.

"While the DA will continue providing seed support to farmers, it will
do away with its fertilizer subsidy program involving the grant of
discount coupons for the purchase of petrochemical fertilizers so the
Department can focus instead on promoting the use of organic
fertilizers among palay growers," said Agriculture Secretary Arthur Yap.

Available discount coupons in the province can be used by
farmer-recipients until the end of this year.

Yap said the streamlining of intervention programs in support of
FIELDS, which stands for Fertilizer, Irrigation and other rural
infrastructure, Education and extension work, Loans, Dryers and other
post-harvest facilities, and Seeds, is part of the sweeping reforms
that he has put in place at the DA for a more effective implementation
and monitoring of its farm productivity programs plus a more prudent
disbursement of funds to program beneficiaries.

Among these reforms effected by Yap are the creation of national and
regional monitoring teams to conduct "periodic field validation and
rapid appraisal" of the DA's intervention measures and the adoption of
more stringent guidelines on the release of funds to non-government
organizations (NGOs) and people's organizations (POs).

The DA is also pursuing from hereon the closer coordination by the
regional field units (RFUs) with provincial, city and municipal
agriculture officers and farm technicians that are helping the DA
carry out its GMA programs in the field, he said.

Yap said this envisioned closer coordination between the DA and
municipal agriculture officers (MAOs) and other LGU-employed
agriculture officers and technician was an offshoot of its recent
accord with the League of Provinces of the Philippines (LPP) on the
detail by governors of some or all of their agricultural workers to
the RFUs for the duration of the DA's two-year rice sufficiency program.

Local government units in Capiz led by the provincial government has
been supporting DA's FIELDS program by initiating the distribution or
serving as conduits of certified palay seeds and other farm inputs for

The use of certified seeds is expected to further boost the palay
output of the province, which has been a traditional surplus producer
of the staple crop. (PIA/DA)

Sunday, October 19, 2008

[kgma] RP highlights World Food Day with massive launching of organic farming

From: "kgma_news"
Date: October 20, 2008 1:23:13 AM EDT
Subject: [kgma] RP highlights World Food Day with massive launching of organic farming

RP highlights World Food Day with massive launching of organic farming
TAGBILARAN CITY (PNA) -- In line with this year's celebration of World
Food Day, the Department of Agriculture (DA) launched a nationwide
promotion of organic farming as a way to improve agricultural
productivity and ensure food sufficiency.

Agriculture Secretary Arthur Yap kicked off the World Food Day
celebration by introducing to farmers in Lila, Bohol the benefits of
organic farming not only to increase farm productivity but also
improve soil fertility by using less fertilizer that rubs off soil

In terms of rice production, Bohol Province contributes 60 percent
share in Region 7, with an area of 46,109 hectares for rice out of
63,919 hectares for the entire region this wet season.

Yap, in an interview, said he chose to launch organic farming in Lila,
Bohol, who is experiencing low production rate due to poor farming
method and efficient irrigation system.

He explained that organic farming is the use of balanced fertilization
method -- organic and inorganic fertilizer -- that increases
productivity and improves soil nutrients by less usage of harmful

Yap said organic farming is incorporated in the FIELDS program, which
is the centerpiece program of the Arroyo administration to guarantee
food security over the medium term amid the incessant threats to
global farm productivity by climate change.

FIELDS stands for Fertilizers, Irrigation and other rural
infrastructure, Education and extension services for farmers, Loans,
Dryers and other post-harvest facilities, and Seeds.

Yap underscored the need for the country to further boost farm
productivity in the face of tightening global food supplies, brought
about by climate change and other global factors, and the urgency for
all sectors not only in Bohol but for the entire country to work
together in sustaining the growth momentum of Philippine agriculture
and fisheries.

As such, he encouraged farmers all over the country to go into organic
farming to ensure food sustainability and sufficiency, and, at the
same time, promotes conservation of environment by using
environment-friendly farming method.

Yap also called for the creation of a National Seed Program in the
country to lessen the high cost of imported seeds.

He encouraged local government units especially in farming communities
to put up their own nurseries so farmers in the area can easily avail
of seeds and fertilizer.

The DA chief also ordered the National Irrigation Administration (NIA)
to fast-track rehabilitation of existing irrigation facilities
nationwide, rather than constructing new ones which are more expensive
and would need bigger budget.

He also turned over checks for the construction of multi-purpose
drying pavements, loan assistance to cooperative banks; and
distributed rice and corn seeds, assorted vegetable seeds, and
fertilizer to farmers in Lila town.

Meanwhile, in connection with the World Food Day celebration, the
Philippines through the DA Secretary and Kazuyuki Tsurumi, the country
representative of the United Nations’ Food and Agriculture
Organization (FAO), signed a memorandum of agreement (MoA) for the US$
471,000 support fund from the Spanish Government to assist
flood-affected farming communities in Eastern Samar and Leyte provinces.

Yap said the project, which will run from October 2008 to September
2009, will provide farmers in the affected areas agricultural inputs
such as rice and corn seeds, assorted vegetable seeds, and fruit trees
seedlings; fertilizers, poultry and livestock, fish fingerlings, among

The project would also give trainings to farmers and women groups to
improve their technical knowledge and skills on sustainable crop,
animal and aquaculture production including processing; and enhance
their capabilities to adopt to other livelihood activities and other
coping strategies in times of natural calamities.

During the occasion, the people of Lila let Yap and Tsurumi
participate in their tradition during harvest season where people
would approach harvesting farmer and offer him rice cake or
"bibingka", and coconut wine or "tuba".

In turn, the farmer would give his townmates palay in "exchange" for
the goods they gave him.

As such, Yap and Tsurumi participated in the harvesting and threshing
of palay, and drank coconut wine with the farmers and ate rice cake to
the applause of the people in the area.

This year’s World Food Day will have for its theme "World Food
Security: the Challenges of Climate Change and Food Security."

To be able to meet these challenges, Yap said, "we must feed the
people now."

This can be done through improved farm production, irrigation system
and infrastructure; lower cost of farm inputs; loan assistance to
farmers and fisherfolk; and availability of technical assistance and
new farming technologies. All these components are in the FIELDS
program of the government. (PNA)

Thursday, October 16, 2008

[kgma] DA, e-Pinoy FARMS to help propel farm technologies

From: "kgma_news"
Date: October 16, 2008 11:23:06 PM EDT
Subject: [kgma] DA, e-Pinoy FARMS to help propel farm technologies

Iloilo City -- In step with President Arroyo's thrust to rapidly raise
farm productivity and rural incomes, the Department of Agriculture has
teamed up with e-Pinoy FARMS to speed up the delivery of new
technologies to farmers.

According to the DA press report e-Pinoy FARMS or e-Pinoy Farm
Resource Management System, is a proprietary integrated farm resource
management system, designed and developed by Optiserve Technologies, Inc. for agribusiness.

Director Nicomedes Eleazar of the DA's Bureau of Agricultural Research
(BAR) in a report to Agriculture Secretary Arthur Yap said e-Pinoy
FARMS will help farmers and their organizations effectively organize,
allocate and manage vital resources for sustainability, increase
profitability and achieve agribusiness development.

The project, Eleazar said, highlights the value of community
participation and strategic management of resources as it encourages
proactive and multi-stakeholder participation in research, development
and extension.

The BAR's e-Pinoy FARMS project is among the DA's initiatives to carry
out President Arroyo's FIELDS program for agriculture. FIELDS stands
for Fertilizer, Irrigation and other rural infrastructure, Research
and extension work, Loans, Dryers and other post-harvest facilities,
and Seeds.

The BAR project is part of the Extension component of the FIELDS
program, which so far has received funding from the DA in the amount
of P694.74 million, the DA press report disclosed.

FIELDS is being implemented by the DA in the palay sub-sector through
its five-harvest self-sufficiency program that aims to make the
country 98% sufficient in the grain in two years' time by targeting
much higher harvests of 18.55 million MT next year and 19.77 million
MT in 2010.

Improving the country's rice self-sufficiency level and bringing food
on the table of every Filipino family have been President Arroyo's
commitments since her first State of the Nation Address in 2001. (PIA)

Tuesday, October 7, 2008

[kgma] PGMA to keynote Agrilink, Foodlink, Aqualink 2008

President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo will be the guest of honor and
keynote speaker at the opening of Agrilink, Foodlink, Aqualink
Festival 2008 on Thursday, Oct. 9, 2008 at the World Trade Center
along Roxas Blvd. in Manila.

The three-day trade show is expected to generate business and trade
opportunities for hundreds of exhibitors and attract thousands of

Dubbed as the "country's biggest and most prestigious annual
international trade show on agribusiness, food and aquaculture," this
year's theme is "Sustaining Agricultural Growth Through Niche Markets".

The agribusiness festival will feature merchandise and services
exhibits, live animal and plant display, marketing presentations,
product demos, retail and wholesale, business networking, and many
other exciting activities.

It will also feature a comprehensive range of exhibits from
non-mainstream products like goat's milk soap, malunggay tea,
organically-farmed fish and papaya pastes to the latest
state-of-the-art traditional products like modern equipment and
machinery, agricultural chemicals, animal housing and breeding, animal
health and nutrition, cooking, storage and post harvest facilities,
feed ingredients, feed milling, greenhouse and nursery, horticulture
inputs, meat products, organic farming and hydroponics, publications,
research and consultancy, seeds and planting materials, irrigation
systems, transport, logistics, and waste management.

The event is co-organized by the Foundation for Resource Linkage and
Development (FRLD) with 20 national trade associations, and supported
by the Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural and Fishery
Council, Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, and the French
Chamber of Commerce in the Philippines.

Representatives of the various co-organizers such as Agrilink,
Foodlink, Aqualink 2008 chair Lyndon Tan, DA Secretary Arthur Yap, and
FRLD president Antonio Roces will join the President for the event.


[kgma] Science and technology-based aid to global agriculture signed

MANILA (PNA) - Over 450 million small farmers will soon get access to
modern agriculture following the approval of funding for new science
and research project by the United Nations and European Commission.

The agreement provides for the European Commission (EC) and the UN
International Fund for Agricultural Development to channel euro 67.5
million to finance research through the Consultative Group on
International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).

The program seeks to develop small-holder agriculture and rural
innovation, key to combating the current food price crisis, by
investing in research.

In particular, it will support research on sustainable management of
resources and ecosystems, enhancing scientific, technological and
institutional innovations and policies.

The UN said half the funds are dedicated to Africa to address the
looming crisis on supply of food.

CGIAR is a strategic partnership whose 64 members, including the
Philippines, support 15 international centers, working in
collaboration with hundreds of government and civil society
organizations as well as private businesses around the world.

The Philippines became a member of the CGIAR in 1980, and is the host
of the CGIAR's International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in Los Baños.

The Philippines' official support to the CGIAR is provided through the
Department of Agriculture, in which the Bureau of Agricultural
Research serves as the CGIAR's primary contact.

Agriculture is one of the biggest employers worldwide, providing
livelihood to some two billion poor people, UN figures indicate.

The new contribution brings the total funding assured by the EC
through IFAD to the CGIAR system to euro 112.5 million, the largest
contribution of a single donor to a specific program through IFAD's
Supplementary Funds.

The program aims to boost active participation of low-income
smallholder farmers in research programs, taking into account remote
and marginal areas, increasing exchange of information and experience,
through scientific and producers' networks and stakeholder platforms,
and fostering collaborative innovation.(PNA)


Thursday, August 28, 2008


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USDA awards $35M for energy projects
WASHINGTON (UPI) -- The U.S. Department of Agriculture awarded $35 million for renewable energy and energy efficiency projects, the department announced Wednesday.

Grants and loan guarantees will be awarded to 639 individuals and businesses in 45 states and the Virgin Islands, Agriculture Secretary Ed Schafer said in a news release.

"America is a world leader in renewable energy and energy efficiency," Schafer said. "These projects are good for business, good for the economy, good for jobs, and they help secure more self-sufficient energy resources for our country."

The funding will support a variety of energy-production and energy-saving project, Schafer said. For example, Chad Brandt of Oakes, N.D., will receive $67,374 in grant and loan funds to replace his existing grain dryer with a more energy-efficient model expected to lower energy costs by more than 20 percent. D.J. Keehner Farms Inc. in Monona, Iowa, will get a $11,561 grant to replace a propane heating system with a more energy-efficient geothermal heating system, expected to reduce energy costs by 78 percent, Schafer said.

The grants and loan guarantees are awarded through a energy program in the department's rural development division.

Copyright 2008 by United Press International

This news arrived on: 08/27/2008
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Monday, August 18, 2008

Chewing Gum with flavors


One of the aspects that frecuently I am asked about chewing gums, is about their flavors, so in this page there is a list of the broad variety of flavors that have the chewing gums.

Many flavors are used along with surnames like Wild, Tangy, Sour, Hot, Intense, Cool, Ice, Breeze, Shiver, Ultra, Real, etc.

Here are in categories, by importance in their use.

I. The most used:

1.-Peppermint, also called only mint, and with frecuence associated with other terms as Strong Mint, Artic Mint, Alpine Mint, Wintergreen mint , Frosty mint, Cool mint , Fresh mint, Spice mint , Green mint, etc. This is maybe the most used flavor for chewing gums in the world, and used in almost every country where chewing gums are manufactured.

2.-Fruit, also called Tutti Frutti, Assorted fruit, and in other similar terms as
Fruit Punch, Fancy Fruit, Mixed Fruit, etc. , is the other more used flavor for chewing gums , and surely between the category of bubble gums. Even some companies use the denomination of Bubble Gum flavor, or Classical and Original flavors .

3.-Spearmint, that although is a variation of mint flavor, is the only kind of mint that is listed here on separate, due to the broad use of this more aromatic fragance, and surely because the most common gum brand Wrigley made this flavor almost as a registered mark.

4.-Menthol, also a mint related flavor, that is used by many cmpanies an many countries. Is interesting that what is called Menthol in some countries is marketed under other names in other places. The mos classical example is the Wrigley Winterfresh , that in Europe is a menthol flavored gum, but in the US and other coutries, the Winterfresh flavor of Wrigley gums is what was called Pepsin flavor in the past.

II. Classical Fruit Flavors:

In most countries, there is a big production of chewing gums with the most classical fruits.

9.-Grape, also are gums under the flavor of Muscat.

III. Other fruit flavors:

But not only those fruit flavors are used in chewing gums, and specially in the last years many other non common flavors, or more exotic fruit flavors are used.

One subcategory is what is called Berries flavors, and since many berries have not a determinated denomination, or are translated in an azarous way, we see many Berries flavors, and some of them are:

21.-Forest Fruits
25.-Blackcurrant, that is also called Cassis

Other no so common fruit flavors are:

29.-Chicha morada is a kind of Purple Corn that is popular in Peru.
30.-Chirimoya a subtropical fruit that is related to Anona.
33.-Grapefruit, also used in the Pink Grapefruit flavor
39.-Maracuja also called Passion Fruit or Passiflora
41.-Naranjilla from Ecuador

IV. Spicy flavors:

There are a lot of spicy flavors used in chewing gums, many well known spice fragances, and many special and local flavors.

46.-Anice, also called Anisette or Pastis
47.-Batna( I don't know what flavor this belong)
48.-Bergamot from a tree that used by Indians in North America
49.-Cardamom very popular in Middle East countries
52.-Jasmine as a floral fragance
55.-Lavander as a floral fragance
56.-Rose as a floral fragance
57.-Mustaka used in Arab countries
59.-Floral many popular in Korea and Japan
60.-Gat is an Herbal fragance from israel
61.-Ginger mint
62.-Hot Pepper
63.-Lemon Tea
64.-Salacider from Thailand

V. Fancy flavors:

In this category many popular flavors, along with undefined flavors .

72.-Coffee, also in variations like Mokka
74.-Cotton Candy
76.-Gingseng very popular in Korea, and many other countries
78.-Herbal, Forest Herbal
79.-Ice Cream
80.-Jasmine Tea
82.-Licorice, also called Reglisse in European countries
83.-Mastic, is the natural flavor of the Matiche resin extracted from a tree that grows in the Eastern Mediterranean, and is a popular flavor in the Middle East also called Damla in Turkish
85.-Natural Chicle
86.-Pepsin, a popular flavor that later was called by other names likeWinterfresh (Wrigley USA) , Coolmint (Dentyne USA).
90.- Whisky and other ahalcholic drink flavors

VI. Combinated flavors:

Many companies make combinated flavors, some of them are:


Wednesday, August 13, 2008

Fertilzers Coupons for RiceLands

Negros Occ.-- More than 15,000 rice farmers here availed of the
fertilizer discount coupons after President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
ordered the Department of Agriculture to extend assistance to farmers
affected by the sudden hike in the cost of fertilizers.

Provincial Rice Coordinator Nilda Juguan of the Office of the
Provincial Agriculturist (OPA) said a total of 75, 526 coupons worth
P18.8 Million were distributed to farmers here since last July.

Area of rice land covered is estimated to reach 37,763. Farmers are
entitled to receive two coupons for every hectare of land they own and
are identified by their respective municipal and city agricultural
office, she said.

With a balance of 26,000 more coupons, Juguan told PIA the
distribution is on-going until October of this year.

She said the lowest chemical fertilizer now cost P1,800 per bag while
premium ones could reach as high as P3,000 per bag. (PIA-LOL)


Davao City -- The country has to increase the volume of production for
bio-diesel and bio-ethanol if it will compel all vehicles to use it.

Dr. Johnny T. Batalon, focal person of Crops Biofuels, Coconut and Oil
Palm Specialist of the Philippine Council for Agricultural Resources
and Research Development (PCARRD) said current production is only at
100,000 liters.

Batalon in an interview during the opening of the Kaniyogan Festival
at SM City Davao Event Center on Wednesday, August 13 he said it would
need 78 million liters for the year one (from May 6, 2007 to May 6,
2008) implementation of biodiesel and 269 million liters for the bio
ethanol when it will be implemented in 2009.

Batalon admitted that there is now a problem with raw materials but he
stressed that their advocacy is to support the biodiesel production
provided it will not compromise the food production.

He said as far as raw materials is concerned, the coconut which is the
source for raw materials for coco methyl ester (CME) is also used by
the food group as main component of their product.

In an earlier report the Philippines is the first country to use
coconut as a source or feedstock for biodiesel, thus the inception of
the government's Coco-Biodiesel Program.

Coco-biodiesel, or Coco-Methyl Ester (CME), is produced from the
transesterification of coconut oil, using methyl alcohol in the
presence of a catalyst.

This process forces out the unwanted components (such as glycerine) in
the oil, which could cause the glumming and clogging of fuel systems
and eventually lead to engine failure in the long term.

Blending CME into diesel seeks to reduce importation of petroleum
products which will turn into foreign exchange savings for the country.

It said that with the 1 percent biodiesel blend, foreign exchange
savings from the country's transport sector alone will amount to about
US$23 million in 2007. This figure is expected to increase to US$49
million once the 2 percent biodiesel is implemented two years after.

Batalon said being studied right now as other sources are the palm oil
and sorghum although palm oil is also used for the production of
vegetable oil.

The palm oil could be a source for biodiesel production while sorghum
for bio-ethanol.

The sweet sorghum he said for bio-ethanol to be blend with gasoline is
a concept introduced from India.

An initial site of this project is in Ilocos Norte where a
groundbreaking will be held on September 6, 2008 in Nueva Ecija for
the establishment of a milling and distillery facility.

He said in the economies of scale it would need 2,400 to 3,000
hectares of sweet sorghum to make the production viable of 40,000
liters per day.

There are other feedstock that could be tapped for ethanol like corn
and cassava but Batolan said this has to be carefully studied because
its production should not compete with food. (PIA)